Google’s Search Engine Working: Crawling and Indexing [Review Paper]


In this, I will be presenting about Google’s Search Results Working process on crawling and indexing of any website and web-pages. A prototype of a large-scale search engine which makes heavy use of the structure present in hypertext Links. Basically, Google Search Engine is designed to crawl-pages, page repository, indexing web pages, querying and ranking pages and the producing much more satisfying search results than existing systems. Google Search Engine is used on the web as a tool for information retrieval. Google Search Engine works on the keyword based searching and keywords are used to search any queries and Google Search Engine Crawl and Index millions of Web-pages every day.

This review paper aims to focus on the analysis of the Google Search Engine, Working of Google Crawling and Indexing, Google search engine crawling architecture, Google search engines working process, crawl web-pages.

Keywords: Google Search Engine, Google Crawling, Google Web-page Crawling, Website indexing.

1. Introduction

The main goal of the Google search engine is to find out and organize distributed data found on the Internet. Google Search engine is an information retrieval system which is designed to search all the web-pages and information relevant to user queries from the World Wide Web. Google Search results are basically presented in the lines of result often referred as search results pages and this information may be a mix-up of web pages, PDF files, videos and images files, and other types of files.

Whenever user enter any keywords, key phrases or any queries into Google Search Engine, then we receives some list of Web-pages, content results and these results are being presented in the form of lists called hits in order of relevancy and one being shown at the top having higher priority and at the bottom having lower priority according to the Google search engine algorithms.

The web is like a growing library with millions of books, information and there is no central filing system. Google uses software which is known as web crawlers to discover all website and publicly available web-pages. Google Crawler crawls the web-pages and follow those links available on the web-pages, much like you would if you were browsing content on the web-pages. They go from link to link and bring data and information about those web-pages back to Google’s Databases of Servers.

Google results as relevant as possible for its users, Google search have a well-defined process for identifying all the best web pages for any given search query. And this process evolves over time as it works to make Google Search results even better.

2. What is Google Search Engine?

Google is scalable search engine especially with extremely large data sets and it is the combination of hardware and software which began in January 1996 as a small research project. The goal of Google is to provide best quality search results over a rapidly growing World Wide Web. The life-cycle of any Google query inserted by a user normally lasts less than half second, but it involves a lot of different steps and algorithms that gets completed before showing the web search results to the user.

The heart of Google Search Engine is Page-Rank Algorithm for ranking web pages on the result set. Google Search Engine is complete architecture for gathering web pages information, indexing web-pages, performing search queries from the user and in designing Google Search Engine, the rate of growth of the Web pages and technological changes were put into consideration.

3. How Google Organizes Search Information

Before you search any queries, Google web crawlers gather information from across hundreds of billions of web-pages and then organize it in the Google Search Index.

Google crawling is processing begins with all list of website addresses from past crawls and sitemaps provided by website owners and website developers using the Google Webmaster Tools. Google crawler visit all these websites and web-pages, using links on those websites to discover other web-pages.

Google software called Google Spiders pays special attention to all new websites, changes to existing websites and dead links on the internet. Computer programs determine which websites to crawl, how often and how many web-pages to fetch from each website using the Google Crawling and Google Spiders.

Google offer webmaster tools to give website owners granular choices about how Google crawl their website: they can provide detailed instructions about how to process pages on their websites can request for re-crawl or can opt out of crawling altogether using a file called “robots.txt”. Google never accepts payment to crawling any site more frequently and provide the same tools to all websites to ensure for best possible results for all webmasters and users.

4. What is Google Crawling?

Google’s web-crawler, also known as a web-spider, this is Internet Bot that is systematical browsing or crawls all the World Wide Web, and typically for the purpose of indexing of all websites or WebPages.

Google’s search engine is used in Web crawling or Spidering Softwares to update their web content or indices of others sites’ web content on Google Result Pages. Google webpage crawler copy pages for processing by the search engine and which indexes the web-pages, so users can search more easily and efficiently.

In Google, firstly web crawler starts with a list of URLs to visit and crawl them, called the seeds. When the crawler visits these website URLs, then it identifies all the hyperlinks present in the web-page and adds them to the list of webpage URLs to visit, which is known as the crawl frontier. All Website and Webpage’s URLs from the frontier are recursively visited according to a set of policies, rules, and algorithms.

4.1 Finding Information by Crawling

The web is like a growing library with millions of books, information and there is no central filing system. And Google uses software which is known as web crawlers to discover all website and publicly available web-pages on the internet. Google Crawler crawl the web-pages and follow those links available on the web-pages, much like you would if you were browsing content on the web-pages.

4.2 What is Googlebot?

Googlebot is Google’s web crawling bot and we have known is as Spider. Crawling is the process which helps Googlebot to discover new websites, webpage and to update pages to add in the Google index table and into Google Database.

Basically, a Google-Bot uses an algorithm which is a computer program to determine which sites to crawl, how often, and how many pages to fetch from each website.

4.3 How Googlebot accesses your site?

Googlebot should never access any websites more than once in every few seconds on average time. And however, due to the network delays, it is possible that the rate of Googlebot will appear to be slightly higher over short periods.

Googlebot was designed to be distributed on several machines to improve performance and scale as the web grows. Also, to cut down on bandwidth usage of the website, Google runs many crawlers on machines located near the websites and they are indexing into the network. Therefore, your logs may show visits from several machines at, all with the user-agent Googlebot. Our goal is to crawl as many pages from your site as we can on each visit without overwhelming your server’s bandwidth. Request a change in the crawl rate.

Google bot trace all the links or hyperlinks then it indexes these entire links into google database and then gives them a position in the google result page.

5. What is Google Indexing?

Indexing is the process which is used to adding all web-pages and whole website into the Google search engine showing in the Google search result page. Depending upon the keywords and which meta-tag is you used (index or NO-index), And Google spider will crawl and index your web-pages. No-index tag means that that web-page will not be added into the Google search’s index.

Whenever Google crawler finds any webpage or website, then Google spider render the content of the web-page, just as a browser does after that it take note of key signals from the keywords to website freshness then Google track it all in the Search index.

A good idea or technique for ranking of any website higher in Google search engines is to let only vital parts of the website be indexed.

6. Factors That Affect Crawling and Indexing

Nowadays there are millions of websites and web-pages on this earth developed by users and developers and most of the people are left constantly wondering why their content is not getting indexed in Google Search Result Pages.

These are some major factors which play important roles at the backend of Google crawling and indexing.

6.1 Domain Name

After the Google Panda update, now website domain name importance has risen significantly and domains that include the main keyword are given importance for ranking and for crawling and for indexing. Also, the crawling rate is higher for those domains that have a good Page Rank on Google Search Result Pages.

6.2 Backlinks

The more backlinks you have, the more trustworthy and reputable you are in the eyes of Google search engine. If a website has good ranking in Google search engine but a website has not any backlines, then Google search engine may assume that website have low-quality content. And then Google will decrees the ranking of the website. And good Backlinks are useful for Crawling and for indexing.

6.3 Internal Linking

There have been so many discussions regarding internal linking (also known as deep linking). People even suggest to using the same anchor text within the same article as it helps in the deep crawling of a site. What’s important to remember is that internal linking is a good practice, not just for SEO, but also for maintaining active users on your website.

6.4 Website XML Sitemap

Google introduced XML Sitemaps protocol for web developers so that they can publish lists of webpage links from across their websites. The XML Sitemap contains the URLs web pages so that Google web crawlers can find them and can index them. This way, Google will be informed that website has been updated and will want to re-crawl by the Google Crawler.

6.5 Duplicate Content

Duplicate content is bad for you and for your website. Duplicate Content was banned by Google because of this practice.

6.6 URL Canonicalization

Create SEO friendly URLs for each page on your site. This is huge for proper SEO. What Is URL Canonicalization and How Do You Use Canonical Tags Properly?

6.7 Meta Tags

Meta Tags will ensure that you have top ranking in Google search engines. Google search gives ranks website which has some unique meta tags.

Google’s Search Engine Working: Crawling and Indexing


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